ITA maintains, since 1988, a clear orientation in the energy field as a developer, designer, contractor, operator and investor in Greece and abroad, extending its wide range of activities in all fields relating to green energy, energy saving and environmental technologies, including water treatment.
Desalination is a viable technique for generating fresh water from water of relatively low quality. More than 300 million people around the world rely on desalinated water
A. Reverse Osmosis Desalination Process
Reverse Osmosis (R.O.) is a physical process that uses the osmosis phenomenon, i.e. the osmotic pressure difference between the saltwater and the pure water, to remove salts. In this process, a pressure greater than the osmotic pressure is applied on saltwater (feedwater) to reverse the flow, which results in pure water (freshwater) passing through the synthetic membrane pores separated from the salt.
A reverse osmosis system consists of four major components/processes:
(3) membrane separation and
(4) post-treatment stabilization
The RO process is effective for removing total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations of up to 45,000 mg/L, which can be applied to desalinate both brackish water and seawater.
B. Thermal Desalination Process
On the contrary, thermal technologies are based on the concept of using evaporation and distillation processes. Modern thermal-based technologies are mostly developed as dual-purpose power and water desalination systems. These technologies are applied to desalination of seawater.
Some common processes include multi-stage flash (MSF) as well as Multi-effect distillation (MED).
Thermal desalination plants use designs that conserve as much thermal energy as possible by interchanging the heat of condensation and heat of vaporization within the units. The major energy requirement in the distillation process thus becomes providing the heat for vaporization of the feedwater.